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What is nondestructive testing of electronic components? NDT methods and standards

Date:2021-08-03 17:34:00 Views:1153

catalogue

brief introductionsignificanceapplication area
test method Common meansSample demand
Test standard


Introduction to nondestructive testing

Nondestructive testing refers to using the changes of thermal, acoustic, optical, electrical, magnetic and other reactions caused by abnormal internal structure or defects of materials to analyze the internal and surface structure, properties, state, type, quantity, shape, position, etc. of the test piece without damaging the service performance of the tested object and the internal organization of the tested object Methods of inspection and testing of dimensions.


Significance of nondestructive testing

Without damaging the tested object, measuring the above changes can help the enterprise more comprehensively, directly and deeply understand and evaluate the actual conditions such as the nature, state, quality or internal structure of the tested materials and equipment components, and help to monitor the product quality and improve the process.


application area

PCB & PCBA, FPC, electronic appliances, electronic components, plastic materials, automotive materials and parts, medical devices, institutions / scientific research products, military industry and national defense, etc.


Methods of nondestructive testing

There are many nondestructive testing methods. According to the research and analysis of NASA, it can be divided into six categories and about 70 kinds. However, the following are common in practical application:

(1) Conventional NDT methods include ultrasonic testing, radiographic testing, magnetic particle testing, penetrant testing and eddy current testing.

(2) Unconventional nondestructive testing technologies include acoustic emission, leakage detection, optical holography, infrared thermal imaging and microwave testing.

The application objects are mainly various materials (metal, non-metal, etc.), various workpieces (weldments, forgings, castings, etc.), various projects (road construction, dam construction, bridge construction, airport construction, etc.).


Common means of nondestructive testing

1. CT detection

CT technology can accurately and quickly reproduce the three-dimensional structure inside the object, and quantitatively provide the physical and mechanical characteristics inside the object, such as the location and size of defects, the change and level of density, the shape and precise size of special-shaped structure, the impurities and distribution inside the object, etc.

Objective: to reconstruct the complete three-dimensional model of the part from the inside out without damaging the part; Material defect analysis, failure form analysis, geometric and geometric tolerance measurement and assembly correctness.

Application scope: electronic components, high-precision components, PCB / PCBA, etc.

Application items of industrial CT inspection: defect analysis, dimension measurement, CAD digital analog comparison

Test steps: confirm the sample type / material → place it in the measuring device → rapid scanning → overall perspective of the image, cross-sectional view of any surface → defect analysis


2. X-ray detection

X-ray uses the cathode ray tube to produce high-energy electrons to collide with the metal target. In the process of impact, due to the sudden deceleration of electrons, the lost kinetic energy will be released in the form of X-ray. For the position where the sample cannot be detected by appearance, the contrast effect generated by recording the change of light intensity after X-ray penetrates substances with different densities can form an image to show the internal structure of the object to be tested, and then the problem area inside the object to be tested can be observed without damaging the object to be tested.

Purpose: detection of internal cracks and foreign matters in metal materials and parts, plastic materials and parts, electronic components, electronic components and LED components, and analysis of internal displacement of BGA and circuit board; Identify BGA welding defects such as empty welding and false welding, and analyze the internal conditions of microelectronic system and adhesive sealing components, cables, fittings and plastic parts.

Application scope: detection of internal cracks and foreign matters in metal materials and parts, plastic materials and parts, electronic components, electronic components and LED components, and analysis of internal displacement of BGA and circuit board; Identify BGA welding defects such as empty welding and false welding, and analyze the internal conditions of microelectronic system and adhesive sealing components, cables, fittings and plastic parts.

Test steps: confirm the sample type / material → put the sample into X-ray equipment for testing → image judgment and analysis → mark the defect type and location.

According to standard: ipc-a-610, GJB 548b


3. Ultrasonic scanning (C-sam)

NDT for defects such as delamination and crack of electronic components, led and metal substrate (crack, delamination, cavity, etc.); Through the image contrast, the difference of acoustic impedance in the material is distinguished, the shape and size of defects are determined, and the orientation of defects is determined.

Scope of application: plastic packaging IC, chip, PCB, led, etc.


NDT sample requirements

CT: generally, the sample size shall not be greater than 50mmx50mm.

X-ray: no more than 300mmx300mm

C-sam: no special requirements


电子元器件无损检测是什么?无损检测方法及标准


Complete collection of NDT standards

(1) General and comprehensive

GB / T 5616-1985 guide for application of conventional nondestructive testing

GB / T 6417-1986 classification and description of weld defects in metal fusion welding

GB / T 9445-1999 qualification and certification of nondestructive testing personnel

GB / T 12469-1990 welding quality assurance requirements and defect classification of steel fusion welded joints

GB / T 14693-1993 symbols for nondestructive testing of welds

JB 4730-1994 nondestructive testing of pressure vessels

JB / T 5000.14-1998 general technical conditions for heavy machinery nondestructive testing of steel castings

JB / T 5000.15-1998 general technical conditions for heavy machinery nondestructive testing of forged steel parts

JB / T 7406.2-1994 terminology of testing machines nondestructive testing instruments

JB / T 9095-1999 technical specification for conventional nondestructive testing of forged Weldments of centrifuges and separators

JB / T 10059-1999 test machine and nondestructive testing instrument model compilation method


(2) Surface method

GB / T 5097-1985 indirect evaluation method of black light source

GB / T 9443-1988 penetrant testing of steel castings and rating method of defect indication marks

GB / T 9444-1988 magnetic particle testing and quality rating method for steel castings

GB / T 10121-1988 magnetic particle testing method for tower shaped hairline of steel

GB / T 12604.3-1990 non destructive testing terminology penetrant testing

GB / T 12604.5-1990 non destructive testing terminology Magnetic particle testing

GB / T 15147-1994 penetrant testing method for nuclear fuel assembly parts

GB / T 15822-1995 magnetic particle testing method

GB / T 16673-1996 measurement of black light source (UV-A) radiation for nondestructive testing

GB / T 17455-1998 nondestructive testing Metallographic replica technology for surface inspection

GB / T 18851-2002 standard test block for nondestructive testing and penetrant testing

JB / T 5391-1991 code for magnetic particle testing of rolling bearing parts of railway rolling stock

JB / T 5442-1991 magnetic particle testing of important parts of compressor

JB / T 6061-1992 magnetic particle testing methods for welds and classification of defective magnetic traces

JB / T 6062-1992 weld penetration inspection method and classification of defect trace

JB / T 6063-1992 technical conditions of magnetic particles for magnetic particle testing

JB / T 6064-1992 technical conditions for chromium plated test blocks for penetrant testing

JB / T 6065-1992 standard test pieces for magnetic particle testing

JB / T 6066-1992 standard test block for magnetic particle testing

JB / T 6439-1992 magnetic particle flaw detection for valves subjected to die casting steel parts

JB / T 6719-1993 magnetic particle inspection for intake and exhaust valves of internal combustion engines

JB / T 6722-1993 magnetic particle inspection for connecting rod of internal combustion engine

JB / T 6729-1993 magnetic particle inspection for crankshaft and camshaft of internal combustion engine

JB / T 6870-1993 specification for rotating magnetic field flaw detector

JB / T 6902-1993 liquid penetrant testing of valve steel castings

JB / T 6912-1993 nondestructive testing and magnetic particle testing of pump parts

JB / T 7367-1994 magnetic particle testing method for cylindrical helical compression spring

JB / T 7411-1994 specification for electromagnetic yoke flaw detector

JB / T 7523-1994 technical requirements for materials for penetrant testing

JB / T 8118.3-1999 technical conditions for magnetic particle testing of piston pins of internal combustion engines

JB / T 8290-1998 magnetic particle flaw detector

JB / T 8466-1996 liquid penetrant testing method for forged steel parts

JB / T 8468-1996 magnetic particle testing method for forged steel parts

JB / T 8543.2-1997 nondestructive testing and penetrant testing of pump parts

JB / T 9213-1999 nondestructive testing Penetrant Inspection type a reference block

JB / T 9216-1999 method for controlling the quality of penetrant flaw detection materials

JB / T 9218-1999 penetrant testing method

JB / T 9628-1999 magnetic particle testing method for steam turbine blades

JB / T 9630.1-1999 magnetic particle inspection and quality classification method for steam turbine steel castings

JB / T 9736-1999 magnetic particle testing method for fuel injection nozzle coupling, plunger coupling and outlet valve coupling

JB / T 9743-1999 technical conditions for magnetic particle testing of connecting rod bolts of internal combustion engines

JB / T 9744-1999 magnetic particle testing method for internal combustion engine parts and components

JB / T 10338-2002 code for magnetic particle testing of rolling bearing parts


(3) Radiation method

GB / T 3323-1987 steel fusion welded butt joints radiography and quality classification

GB 4792-1984 basic standards for radiological protection

GB / T 4835-1984 portable X γ Radiation dose rate meter and monitor

Personal dose monitoring method for radiation workers

GB / T 5677-1985 classification method for radiographic and negative film grades of steel castings

GB / T 9582-1998 industrial radiographic films determination of ISO sensitivity and average slope (by X-ray and X-ray) γ X-ray exposure)

GB 10252-1988 radiation protection and safety standard for cobalt-60 irradiation device

GB / T 11346-1989 classification of pinhole (round) for X-ray radiographic inspection of aluminum alloy castings

GB / T 11806-1989 regulations on safe transportation of radioactive substances

GB / T 11851-1996 radiographic inspection method for welds of fuel rods for pressurized water reactors

GB / T 12469-1990 welding quality assurance requirements and defect classification of steel fusion welded joints

GB / T 12604.2-1990 non destructive testing terminology radiographic testing

GB / T 12604.8-1995 terminology of nondestructive testing -- neutron testing

GB / T 12605-1990 radiographic process and quality classification of circumferential fusion welded butt joints of steel pipes

GB / T 13161-1991 direct reading personal X and γ Radiation dose equivalent and dose equivalent rate monitor

GB / T 13653-1992 X-ray testing method for aviation tyres

GB / T 14054-1993 fixed X and X for radiation protection γ Radiation dose rate meter, alarm device and monitor

GB/T 14058-1993 γ Radiographic flaw detector

GB 16357-1996 radiological protection standard for industrial X-ray testing

GB 16363-1996 shielding properties and test methods of X-ray protective materials

GB / T 16544-1996 spherical storage tank γ Radiographic panoramic exposure method

GB 16757-1997 X-ray protective clothing

GB / T 17150-1997 code for radiological protection and monitoring Part 1: Industrial X-ray flaw detection

GB / T 17589-1998 inspection specification for image quality assurance of X-ray computed tomography equipment

GB 17925-1999 real time X-ray imaging inspection of butt welds of gas cylinders

GB 18465-2001 Industrial γ Radiological protection requirements for radiographic testing

JB / T 5075-1991 lead sensitizing screen for radiography

JB / T 5453-1991 Industrial Χ Specification for X-ray image intensifier television system

JB / T 6220-1992 blackness meter for radiographic testing

JB / T 6221-1992 Industrial Χ General specification for electric of radiographic flaw detector

JB / T 6440-1992 valves are subject to radiographic inspection of die cast steel parts

JB / T 7260-1994 radiography and quality classification of copper welds in air separation equipment

JB / T 7412-1994 fixed (mobile) Industrial Χ X-ray flaw detector

JB / T 7413-1994 portable industrial Χ Radiographic flaw detector

JB 7788-1995 industrial below 500kV Χ Protection rules for radiographic flaw detector

JB / T 7902-1995 linear image quality indicator

JB / T 7903-1999 industrial radiographic film viewing lamp

JB / T 8543.1-1997 nondestructive testing of pump parts radiographic testing method of pump die cast steel parts and classification of negatives

JB / T 8764-1998 for industrial flaw detection Χ General specification for X-ray tube

JB / T 9215-1999 method for controlling radiographic image quality

JB / T 9217-1999 radiographic testing method

JB / T 9402-1999 Industrial Χ Test method for performance of radiographic testing machine


(4) Acoustic method

GB / T 1786-1990 ultrasonic testing method for forged round cakes

GB / T 2970-1991 ultrasonic testing method for medium and heavy steel plates

GB / T 3310-1999 ultrasonic testing method for copper alloy bars

GB / T 4162-1991 ultrasonic testing method for forged and rolled steel bars

GB / T 5193-1985 ultrasonic testing method for titanium and titanium alloy processed products

GB / T 5777-1996 ultrasonic testing method for seamless steel tubes

GB / T 6402-1991 ultrasonic testing method for steel forgings

GB / T 6519-2000 ultrasonic testing method for wrought aluminum alloy products

GB / T 7233-1987 ultrasonic testing and quality rating method for steel castings

GB / T 7734-1987 ultrasonic testing method for composite steel plates

GB / T 7736-1987 ultrasonic testing method for macrostructure and defects of steel

GB / T 8361-2001 ultrasonic testing method for surface of cold drawn round steel

GB / T 8651-2002 method for ultrasonic plate wave testing of metal plates

GB / T 8652-1988 ultrasonic testing method for deformed high strength steel

GB / T 11259-1999 fabrication and calibration method of steel reference blocks for ultrasonic testing

GB / T 11343-1989 contact ultrasonic oblique beam flaw detection method

GB / T 11344-1989 thickness measurement by contact ultrasonic pulse echo method

GB / T 11345-1989 manual ultrasonic testing method and classification of testing results for steel welds

GB / T 12604.1-1990 non destructive testing terminology ultrasonic testing

GB / T 12604.4-1990 nondestructive testing terminology acoustic emission testing

GB / T 12969.1-1991 ultrasonic testing method for titanium and titanium alloy pipes

GB / T 13315-1991 ultrasonic flaw detection method for forged steel cold rolling work roll

GB / T 13316-1991 ultrasonic flaw detection method for cast steel roll

GB / T 15830-1995 classification of ultrasonic testing methods and test results for butt circumferential welds of steel pipes

GB / T 18182-2000 acoustic emission testing and result evaluation method for metal pressure vessels

GB / T 18256-2000 ultrasonic testing method for confirming water pressure tightness of welded steel pipes (except submerged arc welding)

GB / T 18329.1-2001 plain bearings ultrasonic nondestructive testing of bonding strength of multilayer metal plain bearings

GB / T 18694-2002 nondestructive testing ultrasonic testing probe and characterization of its sound field

GB / T 18852-2002 nondestructive testing ultrasonic testing reference test blocks and methods for measuring sound beam characteristics of contact probes

JB 1152-1981 ultrasonic flaw detection for butt welds of boilers and steel pressure vessels

JB / T 1581-1996 ultrasonic flaw detection method for steam turbine, steam turbine generator rotor and main shaft forgings

JB / T 1582-1996 ultrasonic flaw detection method for steam turbine impeller forgings

JB / T 3144-1982 ultrasonic flaw detection for fillet welds of large diameter pipe sockets of boilers

JB / T 4008-1999 liquid immersion ultrasonic longitudinal wave direct flaw detection method

JB / T 4009-1999 contact ultrasonic longitudinal wave direct flaw detection method

JB / T 4010-1985 ultrasonic testing method for steel retaining ring for steam turbine generator

JB / T 5093-1991 technical conditions for ultrasonic flaw detection of friction welded valves of internal combustion engines

JB / T 5439-1991 ultrasonic flaw detection of nodular cast iron parts of compressor

JB / T 5440-1991 ultrasonic flaw detection of forged steel parts of compressor

JB / T 5441-1991 ultrasonic flaw detection of cast steel parts of compressor

JB / T 5754-1991 technical conditions of single channel acoustic emission detector

JB / T 6903-1993 ultrasonic inspection method for valve forged steel parts

JB / T 6916-1993 acoustic emission test and evaluation method for in-service high-pressure gas cylinders

JB / T 7367.1-2000 ultrasonic flaw detection method for cylindrical helical compression spring

JB / T 7522-1994 measurement method of ultrasonic velocity of materials

JB / T 7524-1994 ultrasonic flaw detection of building steel structure welds

JB / T 7602-1994 ultrasonic flaw detection for T-joint of horizontal internal combustion boiler

JB / T 7667-1995 acoustic emission test and evaluation method for in-service pressure vessels

JB / T 8283-1995 performance test method of acoustic emission testing instrument

JB / T 8428-1996 standard test block for calibration of ultrasonic testing instrument for steel weld